Fidyah and Kaffara
The expiatory payment is a special form of charity given to a poor person where one has to pay for each day of missed fasts during Ramadan.
The expiatory payment for Ramadan is only paid by "a person who cannot fast at all." This entails that the expiatory payment only applies for people whom, due to health considerations:
- Cannot fast in Ramadan and
- Cannot make up for the missed fasts at any other time of the year and
- Are not expected to ever regain the ability to make up for the missed fasts
Fidya is a donation of money or food to help and assist those in need. Friday is paid for those who have missed fasting due to a legal reason and cannot make up the missed fast afterwards.
Kaffara is binding upon someone who has missed fasting without any legal reason.
"[Observing Saum (fasts)] for a fixed number of days, but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days. And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g. an old man, etc.), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day). But whoever does good of his own accord is better for him. And that you fast, it is better for you if only you know." 2:184
To make up for the broken fast, a person must fast continuously for 60 days. If they cannot do that, they have to give a charitable compensation for the cost of an average meal for 60 poor people. In the UK, the 2022 Kaffara rate is £5 per person, amounting to £300 for each intentionally broken fast.